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Photo gallery of the 2016 ZTISU games  hosted by NUST in Bulawayo.  Have a look!!!


Pictures courtesy of Bulawayo Polytechnic.


by Neddy Makonza | NUST-ZW

THE most embarrassing thing to do is tell someone about your manhood. Can you however live with telling someone about the disability of your manhood? This can happen if you feel excruciating pain around your groin area and decide to be strong and not seek help.


Testicular torsion is a true urologic emergency and must be differentiated from other complaints of testicular pain because a delay in diagnosis and manage­ment can lead to loss of the testicle. Al­though testicular torsion can occur at any age, including the prenatal and perinatal periods, torsion is most frequent among adolescents with about 65% of cases presenting between 12 – 18 years of age. It occurs in about 1 in 4,000 to 1 per 25,000 males per year before 25 years of age. , it is the most frequent cause of testicle loss in that population.

The testicles are 2 organs that hang in a pouch of skin called the scrotum which sits below the penis. This is where sperm and male sex hormone (testosterone) are made. The blood supply for each testicle comes from the spermatic cord. This cord starts in the abdomen and extends into the scrotum. This cord also contains the vas deferens, which carries sperm from the testicles to the urethra. Damage to these structure is detrimental as they determine the fertility of an individual. However luckily one has two of them.

Testicular torsion occurs when a testicle rotates, twisting the spermatic cord that brings blood to the scrotum. The reduced blood flow causes sudden and often severe pain
and swelling..

Testicular torsion occurs when a testicle rotates, twisting the spermatic cord that brings blood to the scrotum. The reduced blood flow causes sudden and often se­vere pain and swelling due to ischaemia. The testicle is deprived of oxygen and also swelling occur causing compression of the structure and pain. This occurs in about 17% of males and is bilateral in 40%.The following features are associated with higher likelihood of torsion :

  • Pain duration of less than 24 hours
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • High position of the testicle
  • Transverse lie of the affected testis
  • Abnormal cremasteric reflex


Embarrassment in the young patient may prevent disclosure of scrotal pain, and scrotal pain referred to the lower abdomen may be perceived as not being of scrotal or testicular origin. For this reason, any young male who com­plains of lower abdominal pain should undergo examination of the external genitalia to rule out the possibility of scrotal or testicular pathology.

In contrast intravaginal torsion most commonly occurs in adolescents. It is thought that the increased weight of the testicle after puberty, as well as sudden contraction of the cremasteric muscles (which inserts in a spiral fashion into the spermatic cord), is the impetus for acute torsion. Testicular torsion is also associated with testicular malignancy, especially in adults; one study found a 64% association of testicular torsion with testicular malignancy. This is thought to be secondary to a relative increase in the broadness of the testicle compared with its blood supply.

This is a urological emergency; early diagnosis and treatment are vital to saving the testicle and preserving future fertility. Testicular torsion requires emergency surgical treatment to prevent further ischemic damage to the testis. If treated quickly, the testicle can be saved. But when blood flow has been cut off for too long, a testicle might become so badly damaged that it has to be removed.



To prevent loss of the testicles the patient must present within 6 hours after onset of symptoms. Salvaging of the testicle in this instance is possible. This period is called the ‘golden hour’ as it determines whether the testicle survives or not. However if pa­tient delays and present within 24 hours there is a very slight chance to save the testicle but it is indefinite. Presentation after 24 hours the testicle is most likely damaged so nothing can be done to revive the testicle.

History and physical examination are imperfect in ruling out testicular torsion. However very useful and time conscious as patient is quickly taken to theatre if torsion is suspected. Imaging studies (eg, ultrasonography, nuclear scans) may be useful when a low suspicion of testicular torsion is noted. Surgical exploration should not be delayed for the sake of performing imaging studies as this will eat into the golden hour.

Complications that can occur due to un­treated testicular torsion are ;Testicular infarction( death of testicle), Scrotal ab­scess (pus in the scrotum and infection), Gangrene of testis (death and loss of testi­cle), Recurrence, Chronic epididymitis.

In conclusion immediate action in the golden hour is vital to save one’s testicles, fertil­ity, pride and prevent future marital problems.


STARTING a student soci­ety can be a great way to meet new people, have some fun and boost your CV. However, you can’t start one just like that. You’ve got to go through the right motions and tick the right boxes first.

Here’s our guide to starting a stu­dent society. We hope it helps!


Ok, this may sound a bit obvious, but it’s essential that your society is fresh, origi­nal and unique. You can’t just start another football society if one already exists. You’ll need to decide on the society’s name, its purpose, its main initiatives and the events and activities that you intend to provide.

One thing to remember when you’re developing your idea is that your soci­ety proposal must be approved by your university’s student union. Therefore, a society known as the Bunghole Scratch ‘n’ Sniff Society might not get accepted!


Like anything, if you’re going to succeed, you can’t just go storming into this like an absolute nutcase; you need to plan your society in great detail. You need a mission statement, an organisational structure and plan of action. Sit down, brainstorm all your ideas and then work them all into an initial scope document.


To get your society off the ground, you need to garner a decent amount of sup­port from your fellow students. Some students affairs sections/ SRCs won’t let you even think about starting your society without a minimum number of members. You might need at least 20 or 30 people that are willing to become a member.

Make some calls, chat to your friends, start talking to random students at the canteen, start a Facebook group and ba­sically do whatever you can to promote your idea and get other people excited about your society. Once you’ve got a bunch of like-minded people express­ing an interest, you need to get all their names, student numbers, contact details and signatures onto a piece of paper.


This is where you’ll get all your ideas, objectives, plans, values and protocols down on paper. Keep it simple, concise and all-encompassing. Ideally, everyone and everyone should have the right to join your society. Get together with your other members to discuss the constitution. This should be a collaborative process and the final document should reflect the beliefs and motivations of all your members.


Choose a bunch of your members to take on important roles as part of your society’s committee. You could do this through a nomination and election pro­cess, or you could just take the lead and ask the people that you think will be the most effective and enthusiastic.


Once you’ve got your list of mem­bers, your constitution and your committee, it’s time to submit your application for registration to your uni­versity’s student affairs section/ SRC.

You might get your proposal approved straight away or you might have to at­tend an interview, where you’ll be asked searching questions about your soci­ety and your future plans. Once you’ve passed the test, you will be granted status as an official student society.


Now you’ve got approval, you need to get more members. The more members you have, probably the more funding you will get from the student union. It can also be pretty satisfying to get a multi­tude of excitable and enthusiastic mem­bers flocking to your humble society.

The best place to start is the Freshers’ Fair. Get yourself a stall and try to attract as many impressionable first years as pos­sible; offer free sweets, hand out free condoms, pump some big tunes out of a hifi or get a busty lady and a six-packed lothario to stand near your table (ok, maybe not this last one!). Get their email addresses and start messaging them about your upcoming events and activities.


When you’ve got a dedicated army of followers, you can’t just sit back and re­lax. You need to start organising events, meetings and social activities. People will have joined up for a reason, so you need to give them what they want. You should also keep your promotional efforts go­ing; use social media, posters. You could even pull some one-off marketing stunts.


Once your society is established, just keep doing what you’re doing. Running your own society is a lot of hard work, but it’s def­initely worth it! It can look great to poten­tial employers and can give you immense personal satisfaction. Hopefully, when you eventually leave university, somebody else will continue to run the society and carry on the legacy that you have left be­hind!- adapted from | cover image: Alicia D Weaver.


by Tafadzwa Mhepoh | NUST-ZW

IMAGINE being born and growing up in a war zone. You never have a permanent place of residence, just always moving from place to place in a bid to escape death and survive. You never understand why people are getting killed and more so, why your parents and thousands of other families are suffering in the bushes.

For many years of your childhood you are not learning but just watching hundreds of children and adults, including your mom, die due to lack of medicine, food and clean water.

However, due to interventions by non-profit organizations such as the United Nations High Commission for Refugees, you are able to move to a refugee camp in a neighbouring country and start schooling there. Life in the camp is not rosy but you make a commitment to do your best, make the most of the opportunity and become a change maker.

Such is the story of Jacob Maluak Manyang a South-Sudanese student at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln (UNL), United States. I met Jacob during a study abroad trip in the US early this year. Jacob was resettled in the United States in 2006 where he continued with his high school education. He had just turned 19.

Jacob Maluk Manyang.

Jacob who recently completed his degree in Agronomy and Crop Production is the founder of a student society called Save South Sudanese Orphans and Widows (SSSOW) at UNL. The student organization’s goal is to provide orphans and widows back in Sudan with basic necessities, which include basic education, clean water, and healthcare.

Jacob spoke at eloquent length about his motivation for establishing the organization and the roller-coaster ride it has been running an aid organization as a student.

“While living here in the US, I always think about ways to assist the many orphans and widows that are still suffering in South Sudan,” said Jacob. “After studying agronomy and crop production at UNL, my aim is to go back to the refugee camps and train orphans and widows in the agricultural skills that will help them produce their own food,” he added.

Jacob said the organization works to raise money in order to provide access to basic education and free, fresh water to South Sudan as well as Doctors and Dentists Without Borders to provide medical support to orphans and widows.

Activities of SSSOW in the United States include doing fundraising projects such as promotions and selling t-shirts; advertising the noble cause of the organization by talking to people and reaching out to leaders in the community and applying for grants from aid agencies.

Jacob’s goals this year are to raise about US$15 000 and visit Sudan at least once / twice in order to deliver aid and make a difference.

Responding to my question on challenges he faced in running the society, he mentioned that it was hard to find staff to run the non-profit establishment when he set up in 2013. However with a little perseverance, he was able to attract students from diverse backgrounds to help him fulfill his mission.

You too can help SSSOW make a difference in the lives of our brothers and sisters from other mothers by making a donation of at least US$1. Follow this link

If you are inspired by Jacob’s story and are considering starting your own student society that could change other’s lives, check the next ARTICLE for a 9 point step -by-step guide of how to.


Father’s Day Is Not for Single Mothers

By Cherese Jackson (Virginia)

Contrary to the cultural campaign identifying single mothers as candidates for Father’s Day, this day is designed to honor the men who acknowledge their children and hold their roles as dads in high esteem. According to the dictionary a father is a male who has child, a male parent or father-in-law, an adopted father or step-father. Any person that does not fall under those guidelines Father’s Day is not for them.

Although there are many painful and legitimate reasons women find themselves raising their children alone, that does not qualify them to be considered fathers. Often women are thrust into the role of a single parent due to circumstances outside of their control; things like abusive relationships where the woman had to leave her abuser, her partner dies or she was raped and decided against an abortion. There are also times when a woman finds herself rearing her children alone as a result of her own decisions and the consequences thereof .

With divorce rates being at an all time high sometimes the father splits and abandons his responsibilities where the children are concerned; his responsibilities are not just financial. Far too often when couples separate the mother forces the father to stay away and even uses “child support” against him. Whatever the reason a mother finds herself a single mom, being celebrated on Father’s Day is ludicrous and makes as little sense as a single father being recognized on Mother’s Day.

Do not misunderstand the point being made, the mothers who have the difficult task of managing the lives of their children alone should be honored and respected but according to the definition a woman simply cannot be a father. A child needs both parents but the roles these parents occupy are unique and equally invaluable. Even within the current culture that appreciates and encourages same-sex parents there will either be two dads or two moms.

The concept of Father’s Day was inspired by a single dad who embraced the challenge of raising his six children alone after his wife died. By including mothers who are single on a day designed for fathers helps the male role in the child’s life become further devalued. Men who are involved in the upbringing of their children should be honored, celebrated and appreciated; not undervalued.Mother’s Day is always in May and, for those that do not know, Single Parents’ Day is in March.

To spread the “love” to single moms on Father’s Day is not as empowering as it might seem. Contrariwise it capitalizes on a self-inflicted wound and stunts the process of healing. The truth is parents should be honored and appreciated every day in their respective roles.

This is not a personal issue it is a community crisis that leads a woman to believe she can do the job of a man. No matter how courageous a woman is, just as many men who are left to raise their children alone are not mothers; the role of the father is not one that can be filled by a woman. This does not take any credit away from the “Wonder Woman” that she is and the hard work she invests in taking care of her family. These things just make her an amazingly strong woman but biologically not a father.

By all means as a society we should continue to find ways to strengthen, empower and honor single women who continue to hold it down for their families. They deserve honor for their extreme commitment and dedication – just not as an equal to a male on Father’s Day, this day is for men.

There are many who will disagree with this thought process primarily because their emotions are tied to their reasoning. The definitions are clear; a male parent is a father and a female parent is a mother. When a mother is the sole party responsible for her children she is being a parent; a great one but not a father.

There is a cultural campaign which seeks to honor motherhood on Father’s Day. This day is designed to celebrate the men who embrace their roles as dads. Although a well-intentioned gesture, telling single moms that they are fathers too does not help the crisis many women are now left in or does it encourage men to step in and step up. As much as it pains some hardworking mothers to accept, Father’s Day is not for single mothers. In conclusion, from the newest father to the most seasoned grandfather “Happy Father’s Day!”

Check out our June Issue of Campus Voices and see why students say Dads are their SUPER HEROES..REAL dads not moms. LOL



by Nomathemba Zondo | NUST-ZW

As I write this piece today, I feel that we as a country and our media have failed to fully commemorate this year’s day of the African Child. Politics and economic crisis have turned to overshadow the day of the African Child.

It is because of the dire economic situation in the country and the political instability which is being influenced by the approaching 2018 Presidential Elections that we have almost forgotten to remember the day of the African Child. It is not only important to us as an African country but all other African countries too.

Yes we continue to celebrate the landmark Constitutional Court ruling that has outlawed marriage of children under the age of 18, but let’s not forget that child marriages have not yet been criminalized. There is still a need for us to engage in advocacy efforts to ensure the realignment of the laws to the Constitution and criminalise child marriages. Isn’t this day supposed to address such an issue?


Unfortunately, no one cares the media does not care the only concern is our economy and who is the next successor after president  Mugabe but the question is, what are we saying about the future generation of the country?  When are we then going to empower them since we have neglected this day and deemed it less important than other issues. After all, this is the future of tomorrow.

I believe this day was supposed to be used to advocate and empower the African child so that they  can have a brighter future. The economic crisis we are in right now was caused by some decisions made by the older generation and we surely do not want the same mistakes to be made by some generations to come.

In commemorations like these, the media is supposed to cover as many stories to do with the African child as possible. I would not be surprised to hear some saying they are not even aware of the day of the African Child because our media which is supposed to keep us informed has shifted its focus to cover stories that will only sell the newspaper and not solve the situation.

We need to empower the young generation, it is the future of tomorrow. Let us remember and encourage the African child. A better tomorrow is possible!

Images Creds: &


by Buyile Sangolekhaya Matiwane | Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT)

Observers of the current affairs discourse in this country could be forgiven for thinking that South Africa is totally bereft of hope and that the state is on the brink of collapse.
The dominant views emerging out of this one sided discourse are those of doomsayers who use the country’s genuine growth and development challenges as a tool to support their imaginary theories of a failing state, led by a government that is incapable of addressing the needs of ordinary citizens. To this end, unemployment, crime, service delivery protests, government’s response to the drought, the performance of the Rand and slowing economic growth rate are paraded as examples of how the ANC led government is, in the words of one commentator, “fiddling while Rome burns.”
Nothing could be further from the truth. In a forthright and frank assessment of our economic challenges during a period of slowing global volatility, Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan noted that a decline in demand for our commodities and their prices has created a toxic mix of reduced export earnings, declining investment, job losses and in some cases business failures.
It is for these and other reasons that Minister Gordhan delivered one of the most balanced budgets that advocates for a period of fiscal consolidation marked by a reduction in the budget deficit, freezing non-essential managerial and administrative posts and introducing specific new taxes to augment national revenue.
To respond to slowing global demand for commodities, which is leading to job cuts, especially in the mining and associated industries, government has identified and is investing in key sectors of the economy that have the potential to create thousands of new, sustainable jobs. The National Growth Path (NGP) calls for targeted investment in infrastructure development, the agricultural value chain, the mining value chain, the green economy, the manufacturing sector and tourism.
To respond to the challenge posed by the NGP, government has kick-started a comprehensive infrastructure development programme that is turning South Africa into a massive construction site. New roads, railway lines, power stations, dams, bridges, pipelines, schools, hospitals and clinics are either in the planning stages, construction phase or have just been completed. The country is spending R1 billion a day on a massive infrastructure development programme that has so far created over 200 000 jobs.
On a daily basis, the socio economic conditions of our people are improving for the better. When completed; Medupi, Ingula and Kusile power stations will add over 1600 Megawatts onto the national grid. Six months ago President Jacob Zuma opened Medupi Unit 6 which has added 800 Megawatts onto the grid. The results are there for all to see. When was the last time South Africa experienced large scale load shedding?
South Africa is investing in its people and putting them to work. In terms of government’s commitment to industrialisation; buses, trucks and rail locomotives are being manufactured and refurbished here at home, in targeted economic zones such as Rosslyn in Tshwane and factories in Johannesburg and Cape Town. The Industrial Development Corporation has set aside billions of Rands to invest in new manufacturing ventures, the green economy, grow the pool of entrepreneurs and to create new black industrialists.
Other large scale infrastructure initiatives include widening the Durban Harbour and increasing its container terminal capacity, expanding capacity at the Port of Ngqura, completing the De Hoop and Clanwilliam dams and extending the Bus Rapid Transit system that has proved successful in Tshwane, Joburg and Cape Town to other metros such Ekurhuleni which is about to pilot the first phase of its BRT system.
Our State Owned Companies (SOCs) are crucial in driving this infrastructure development through targeted spending on developmental projects with the propensity to create thousands of jobs and ensure that infrastructure can meet demand once the global economic outlook improves. This is the mark of a government that works, that is creating new industries and maximising opportunities for investment, employment and growth.
But boasting about investing in infrastructure is futile if this investment does not result in visible improvements in the lives of ordinary South Africans. When a municipality, working closely with Eskom, extends transmission to an area that had no electricity and Gogo Dube switches on the lights in her home for the first time in her life that is when we are working. When a single mother of four receives the keys to her brand new home after years on the waiting list and smiles because she has always dreamt of cooking in her own kitchen that is when we are making a difference.
When a young entrepreneur receives funding for an idea that could change the world for the better and create jobs for locals, we know that our efforts at improving the lives of our people are bearing fruit.
President Jacob Zuma has put infrastructure development at the top of his agenda and is personally overseeing coordination of all the major infrastructure development programmes along with members of his executive. As the President has aptly put it: “Infrastructure development is critical for both industrialisation and to boost employment in construction and other sectors, especially during such a difficult time.”
The doomsayers are wrong. Unlike ancient Rome, South Africa is not burning. It is a thriving democracy that turns 21 next month, blossoming into a fully matured adult along with the complications that come with such changes. This ANC led government has developed sound policies and put in place concrete programmes that will douse any fire before it becomes an inferno.
Yes, we have challenges. The crime rate is still unacceptably high, levels of poverty and inequality must be reduced, and economic benefits are still skewed in favour of a tiny minority. But despite what the critics may believe, this country is on the correct path towards a trajectory of shared growth, development and poverty alleviation. Let us all put shoulder to the wheel.


by Senamiso Moyo | University of the Witwatersrand

As a Zimbabwean student studying in South Africa, the recent student protests that swept through the country were a strange occurrence. It was amazing to witness students gather in large numbers to fight against unrealistic tuition fee increases imposed by the universities.
The general feeling amongst most Zimbabwean students, as we watched our South African colleagues shut down universities, public roads and march to the Union Buildings (where the executive arm of government sits), was mostly fascinating and intriguing. Most of us grew up in post 1980 Zimbabwe and had never witnessed such a huge protest before. Where singing, dancing and generally disruptive behaviour on the streets was used by people to get the attention of the bigger heads and have their demands. Throughout most of the demonstrations we kept asking ourselves, “Where are the riot police? Or why don’t they just accept the increases? After all its life”
Not to say we don’t have protests and demonstrations in Zimbabwe, but they are usually dealt with so much more differently, especially if it concerns what the State considers trivial matters. Any gathering that seeks to disrupt the peace or the functioning of Civil Society is usually nullified before it becomes a matter to write home and report about.
However, throughout these protests we were exposed to the good and the bad of protest action and to some extent, we gained an understanding of why the Zimbabwean government deals with disruptions like this so swiftly. At first students were united in one movement which led to President Jacob Zuma announcing that there will be no fee increases for the year 2016. However, there was now a lot of external political interference riding on the wave of what was for a good cause. Various political institutions then used the student movement to pressurize the ANC government to provide free education and an end to non-standard labour practices within tertiary institution. The reasonableness of the demands was now seemingly lost and the majority of the students wanted to resume classes with final exams fast approaching.
What subsequently transpired was a huge conflict between the student bodies. There were the more politically inclined students who wanted to continue with the protests and the shutdown of campuses. Funded by rival political parties, they staged one of the longest on-campus occupations in history, defending their stance by any means, which included threats of violence. Then there were the majority of the students who accepted that 0% increase was reasonable and wanted to continue with exams, campus had of course been shut down for two weeks.
As part of the majority I began to understand why the Zimbabwean government dealt with disruptive action so swiftly. When the demands from protestors became unreasonable, everyone looked to the The South African Police Service (SAPS) to act. The University did everything within the ambit of the law to deter protestors. However, in respecting the right to freedom of protest afforded by the South African constitution, the SAPS just watched on and basically did nothing. Exams were postponed and this put a lot of students in danger of not graduating and foreign students whose permits were to expire soon in danger of having to leave the country without writing examinations. This is the great disadvantage with the right to protest, it affords the protesting party too much power, it seizes being negotiation and becomes a demand with no room for bargaining. This is only acceptable in so far as the protesting party does not abuse this right as the protestors did in this case.
The plight of poor students and exploited workers is one that I sympathise with deeply. However, any right that is afforded in any constitution, may be limited if it infringes on the rights and interests of another person. Zimbabwe and South Africa are two extremes, and there is still a long way to go in establishing a balance in this regard.